Griffin Gallery Presents “Avatars Of The Divine: Women In Pre-Columbian Society”

Griffin Gallery of Ancient Art invites everyone to their Free Reception on Saturday, January 9th from 2:00 – 4:30 pm.  Artifacts focusing on women in Pre-Columbian society will be featured.  Enjoy refreshments and view this gallery of magnificent ancient artifacts, folk art, contemporary art, and splendid antiques of centuries past.  The Rickie Report shares some sneak peeks and fascinating history of the role of women in Pre-Columbian society, provided by Griffin Gallery. Bring your family and learn about history in a new and fascinating setting!  In addition,  The Griffin Gallery’s gift to you with a value of $30, is a printable FREE COMPLIMENTARY PASS for The Boca Raton Fine Art, Jewelry, & Antique Show exhibiting the weekend of February 05 – 07, 2016.

 

 

 

 

griffinlogo

Griffin Gallery Ancient Art

Gallery Center

608 Banyan Trail Boca Raton, FL 33431

561.994.0811 fax: 561.994.1855

www.griffingallery.net    griffingallery18@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

Public Reception:

AVATARS OF THE DIVINE:
WOMEN IN PRE-COLUMBIAN SOCIETY

Saturday, January 9, 2015

2:00 pm until 4:30 pm

 

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“Women were not only daughters, wives, mothers, and grandmothers, but also healers, midwives, scribes, artists, poets, priestesses, warriors, governors, and even goddesses in pre-Columbian society,” says Dr. Judy L. Larson, Director of the National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington D.C.

 

 

For many years, archaeologists assumed that men monopolized the power in pre-Columbian civilizations. The discovery of women’s tombs in Zapotal, Mexico, in 1971, and San José de Moro, Peru, in 1991, challenged that assumption. These tombs gave ample testimony to the importance of women in both societies and evidence of their high social status.

 

 

 

The Peruvian tombs, among the richest ever excavated in the Americas and part of a larger suite of elite burial chambers, contained the remains of Late- (750-800 CE) and Transitional-period (850-1000 CE) Moche priestesses. Farther north, richly appointed tombs in the Mexican state of Veracruz, contained extraordinary terra-cotta figures that represent Cihuateteo, deified women who served as guides to the next world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Women were not only priestesses in ancient society; they were considered goddesses, as well, by virtue of their unique reproductive role. Feminine nature, with its mysterious ability to create life, was accorded divine status. Numerous objects have been found in sculptures of wide-hipped women; clay and stone vessels depicting sexual intercourse; figurines and carvings showing women holding and nursing children, cupping their breasts and touching their genitalia—are powerful evidence for the central, supernatural role accorded fertility and birth.

 

 

 

 

In fact, religion permeated all facets of pre-Hispanic life. It was believed that every natural occurrence was an expression of the will of the gods, and every human undertaking was an attempt to obey that will. Thus, even domestic tasks like cooking, planting, gathering, and weaving, reflected a divine plan.

 

 

 

 

Pre-Columbian women practiced body adornment as a beauty and fashion aid, but also for religious and social purposes. Many objects in the exhibition, both Andean and Mesoamerican, show women with tattoos and body painting, scarification, as well as with intentional deformations of the cranium, lips, and ears. Beyond the mortal sphere, beyond the notion of women as avatars of the divine, were the goddesses worshipped by these ancient peoples.

 

 

 

 

Griffin Gallery

 

Griffin Gallery specializes in museum quality Ancient Art. Our holdings include over five hundred authentic artifacts that reflect a spectrum of the cultures of Antiquity in addition to Contemporary Fine Works of Art. Among our treasures are pieces from Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Far East, the Near East, the Holy Land, Pre-Columbian cultures, and pre historic Native America.

 

 

Griffin Gallery Ancient Art
Gallery Center, 608 Banyan Trail
Boca Raton, FL 33431
561.994.0811, fax: 561.994.1855
www.griffingallery.net
griffingallery18@yahoo.com

 

PRINT AND USE THIS FREE PASS

Boca Show Invite

 

The Boca Raton Fine Art, Jewelry, & Antiques Show
February 05 – 07, 2016

The Renaissance Hotel
2000 NW 19th Street, Boca Raton, FL
Friday: Noon – 8:00 PM
Saturday: Noon – 7:00 PM
Sunday: Noon – 5:00 PM

Sponsored by: Beiner,Inkeles & Horvitz, P.A. 2000 Glades Road, Ste. 110, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, (561) 750-1800

Works Cited: http://hispanicad.com/blog/news-article/had/art-literature/divine-and-human-women-ancient-mexico-and-peru

 

 

 

For coverage of your events, to place an advertisement, or speak to Rickie about appearing in The Rickie Report, contact:

Rickie Leiter, Publisher

The Rickie Report

P.O.Box 33423

Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33420

Rickie@therickiereport.com

561-537-0291

Griffin Gallery Features Artifacts Of Ancient Syria At December Presentation

Griffin Gallery of Ancient Art invites everyone to their Reception on Saturday, December 12th from 2:30 – 4:30 pm. Artifacts from ancient Syria will be featured. Enjoy refreshments and view this gallery of magnificent ancient artifacts, folk art, contemporary art, and splendid antiques of centuries past. To celebrate the upcoming holidays Griffin Gallery is offering price reductions up to 20% on most pieces over $1,000. The Rickie Report shares some sneak peeks and fascinating history of Syria and the region provided by Griffin Gallery.  Bring your family and learn about history in a new and fascinating setting!

 

griffinlogo

Griffin Gallery Ancient Art

Gallery Center

608 Banyan Trail       Boca Raton, FL 33431

561.994.0811         fax: 561.994.1855

www.griffingallery.net      griffingallery18@yahoo.com

Public Reception:

 

ARTIFACTS OF ANCIENT SYRIA

Saturday, December 12, 2015

2:30 pm until 4:30 pm

 

ANCIENT GIFTS UNDER $500
Roman Glass Pendants, Broaches, and Maccabean Bronze Coins
In Contemporary 14K Gold and Silver Settings

GriffinGalleryHoliday Jewelry2015

Ancient Artifact Jewelry Pieces – On Sale for the Holidays!

 

 

 

Griffin Gallery specializes in museum quality Ancient Art. Our holdings include over five hundred authentic artifacts that reflect a spectrum of the cultures of Antiquity in addition to Contemporary Fine Works of Art. Among our treasures are pieces from Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Far East, the Near East, the Holy Land, Pre-Columbian cultures, and pre historic Native America.

 

 

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Ancient Syria
Thomas Collelo, ed. Syria: A Country Study

Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1987

The first recorded mention of Greater Syria is in Egyptian annals detailing expeditions to the Syrian coastland to log the cedar, pine, and cypress of the Ammanus and Lebanon mountain ranges in the fourth millennium. Sumer, a kingdom of non-Semitic peoples that formed the southern boundary of ancient Babylonia, also sent expeditions in the third millennium, chiefly in pursuit of cedar from the Ammanus and gold and silver from Cilicia. The Sumerians most probably traded with the Syrian port city of Byblos, which was also negotiating with Egypt for exportation of timber and the resin necessary for mummification.

 

 

 

An enormous commercial network linking Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Aegean, and the Syrian coast was developed. The network was perhaps under the aegis of the kingdom of Ebla (“city of the white stones”), the chief site of which was discovered in 1975 at Tall Mardikh, 64 kilometers south of Aleppo. Numerous tablets give evidence of a sophisticated and powerful indigenous Syrian empire, which dominated northern Syria and portions of lower Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Iran. Its chief rival was Akkad in southern Mesopotamia, which flourished circa 2300 B.C. In addition to identifying another great cultural and political power for the period–and an independent Syrian kingdom at that–the discovery of Ebla has had other important ramifications. The oldest Semitic language was thought to have been Amorite, but the newly found language of Ebla, a variant of Paleo-Canaanite, is considerably older. Ebla twice conquered the city of Mari, the capital of Amurru, the kingdom of the Semitic- speaking Amorites. After protracted tension between Akkad and Ebla, the great king of Akkad, Naram Sin, destroyed Ebla by fire in either 2300 or 2250. Naram Sin also destroyed Arman, which may have been an ancient name for Aleppo.

 

 

 

 

Amorite power was effectively eclipsed in 1600 when Egypt mounted a full attack on Greater Syria and brought the entire region under its suzerainty. During the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries, the area was in tremendous political upheaval because of the growing Assyrian power pressing from the east and invasions from the north of Hittites who eventually settled in north and central Syria.

 

 

 

Another Semitic-speaking people, the Canaanites, may have been part of the same migration that brought the Amorites into Syria from northern Arabia in approximately 2400. The Amorites came under the influence of Mesopotamia, whereas the Canaanites, who had intermarried with indigenous Syrians of the coast, were probably under the initial influence of Egypt.
The descendants of the intermarriages between Canaanites and coastal Syrians were the Phoenicians, the greatest seafaring merchants of the ancient world. The Phoenicians improved and developed iron tools and significantly advanced the art of shipbuilding. Their mastery of the seas allowed them to establish a network of independent city-states; however, these entities were never united politically, partially because of the continual harassment from Hittites to the north and Egyptians to the south. The name given to their land–Canaan in Hurrian, Phoenicia in Greek–refers to the fabulously valued purple dye extracted from mollusks found at that time only on the Syrian coast. From this period purple became the color of the robes of kings because only they and other small groups of the ancient Middle Eastern elite could afford to purchase the rare dye. The wealth derived in part from the dye trade sparked the economic flame that made it possible for Greater Syrian city-states to enjoy a wide measure of prosperity.
Many of Greater Syria’s major contributions to civilization were developed during the ancient period. Syria’s greatest legacy, the alphabet, was developed by Phoenicians during the second millennium. The Phoenicians introduced their 30-letter alphabet to the Aramaeans, among other Semitic-speaking people, and to the Greeks, who added vowel letters not used in Semitic grammatical construction.  The Phoenicians, somewhat pressed for space for their growing population, founded major colonies on the North African littoral, the most notable of which was Carthage. In the process of founding new city-states, they discovered the Atlantic Ocean.

 

 

The Aramaeans had settled in Greater Syria at approximately the end of the thirteenth century B.C., the same time at which the Jews, or Israelites, migrated to the area. The Aramaeans settled in the Mesopotamian-Syrian corridor to the north and established the kingdom of Aram, biblical Syria. As overland merchants, they opened trade to Southwest Asia, and their capital Damascus became a city of immense wealth and influence. At Aleppo they built a huge fortress, still standing. The Aramaeans simplified the Phoenician alphabet and carried their language, Aramaic, to their chief areas of commerce. Aramaic displaced Hebrew in Greater Syria as the vernacular (Jesus spoke Aramaic), and it became the language of commerce throughout the Middle East and the official language of the Persian Empire. Aramaic continued to be spoken in the Syrian countryside for almost 1,000 years, and in the 1980s remained in daily use in a handful of villages on the Syrian-Lebanese border. A dialect of Aramaic continues to be the language of worship in the Syrian Orthodox Church.
The plethora of city-states in Greater Syria could not withstand the repeated attacks from the north by the powerful Assyrian Empire, which under the leadership of Nebuchadnezzar finally overwhelmed them in the eighth century. Assyrian aggressors were replaced by the conquering Babylonians in the seventh century, and the then mighty Persian Empire in the sixth century. Under Persian aegis, Syria had a measure of self-rule, as it was to have under a succession of foreign rulers from that time until independence in the twentieth century. When Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire in 333, local political powers–which probably would have continued to contest for control of Greater Syria–were effectively shattered, and the area came into the strong cultural orbit of Western ideas and institutions.
At Alexander’s death, the empire was divided among five of his generals. General Seleucus became heir to the lands formerly under Persian control, which included Greater Syria. The Seleucids ruled for three centuries and founded a kingdom with the capital at Damascus, which later became referred to as the Kingdom of Syria. Seleucus named many cities after his mother, Laodicea; the greatest became Latakia, Syria’s major port.

 

 

Enormous numbers of Greek immigrants flocked to the Kingdom of Syria. Syrian trade was vastly expanded as a result of the newcomers’ efforts, reaching into India, the Far East, and Europe. The Greeks built new cities in Syria and colonized existing ones. Syrian and Greek cultures synthesized to create Near Eastern Hellenism, noted for remarkable developments in jurisprudence, philosophy, and science.  Replacing the Greeks and the Seleucids, Roman emperors inherited already thriving cities–Damascus, Tadmur (once called Palmyra), and Busra ash Sham in the fertile Hawran Plateau south of Damascus. Under the emperor Hadrian, Syria was prosperous and its cities, major trading centers; Hawran was a well-watered breadbasket. After making a survey of the country, the Romans established a tax system based on the potential harvest of farmlands; it remained the key to the land tax structure until 1945. They bequeathed Syria some of the grandest buildings in the world, as well as aqueducts, wells, and roads that were still in use in modern times.

 

 

 

Neither the Seleucids nor the Romans ruled the area without conflict. The Seleucids had to deal with powerful Arab peoples, the Nabataeans, who had established an empire at Petra (in present-day Jordan) and at Busra ash Sham. The Romans had to face the Palmyrenes, who had built Palmyra, a city even more magnificent than Damascus and the principal stop on the caravan route from Homs to the Euphrates.  By the time the Romans arrived, Greater Syrians had developed irrigation techniques, the alphabet, and astronomy. In A.D. 324 the Emperor Constantine moved his capital from Rome to Byzantium, renaming it Constantinople (modern Istanbul). From there the Byzantines ruled Greater Syria, dividing it into two provinces: Syria Prima, with Antioch as the capital and Aleppo the major city; and Syria Secunda, ruled frequently from Hamah. Syria Secunda was divided into two districts: Phoenicia Prima, with Tyre as the capital; and Phoenicia Secunda, ruled from Damascus. (Most of Phoenicia Prima is now Lebanon.) The ruling families of Syria during this period were the Ghassanids, Christian Arabs loyal to Byzantium, from whom many Syrians now trace descent.

 

 

 

Byzantine rule in Syria was marked by constant warfare with the Persian Sassanian Empire to the east. In these struggles, Syria often became a battleground. In 611 the Persians succeeded in invading Syria and Palestine, capturing Jerusalem in 614. Shortly thereafter, the Byzantines counterattacked and retook their former possessions. During the campaign the Byzantines tried to force Greek orthodoxy on the Syrian inhabitants, but were unsuccessful. Beset by financial problems, largely as a result of their costly campaigns against the Persians, the Byzantines stopped subsidizing the Christian Arab tribes guarding the Syrian steppe. Some scholars believe this was a fatal mistake, for these tribes were then susceptible to a new force emanating from the south… Islam.  The Byzantine heritage remains in Syria’s Christian sects and great monastic ruins. In the fourth century A.D., Roman Emperor Theodosius destroyed the temple to Jupiter in Damascus and built a cathedral in honor of John the Baptist. The huge monastery at Dayr Siman near Aleppo, erected by Simeon Stylites in the fifth century, is perhaps the greatest Christian monument built before the tenth century.

 

 

For more information please contact:

Griffin Gallery Ancient Art
Gallery Center, 608 Banyan Trail      Boca Raton, FL 33431
561.994.0811, fax: 561.994.1855
www.griffingallery.net        griffingallery18@yahoo.com

 

 

SAVE THE DATE!

The Boca Raton Fine Art, Jewelry, & Antiques Show
February 05 – 07, 2016

The Renaissance Hotel
2000 NW 19th Street, Boca Raton, FL
Friday: Noon – 8:00 PM
Saturday: Noon – 7:00 PM
Sunday: Noon 0 5:00 PM

Sponsored by: Beiner,Inkeles & Horvitz, P.A. 2000 Glades Road, Ste. 110, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, (561) 750-1800

*Works Cited: http://countrystudies.us/syria/3.htm

 

 

For coverage of your events, to place an advertisement, or speak to Rickie about appearing in The Rickie Report, contact:

Rickie Leiter, Publisher

The Rickie Report

P.O.Box 33423

Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33420

Rickie@therickiereport.com

561-537-0291

Time To Submit Unusual Antiques And Ancient Artifacts To Griffin Gallery Of Ancient Art For Consignment

This summer it’s time to dust off that unique antique or ancient artifact in your home or office to see if there is a possible consignment with Griffin Gallery Ancient Art.  Please join Griffin Gallery on Saturday, August 08, 2015 for refreshments as you’ll have the opportunity to submit your unusual antiques and ancient artifacts for consignment. Please note that only accepted submissions will be provided with a retail appraisal. The Rickie Report shares the details of the August 8th event and some sneak peeks of consigned pieces here. 

 

 

 

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YOU ARE INVITED:

Saturday, August 8th

11 am – 4 pm

Accepting Consignments of

Unique Antique and Ancient Art

(Prior to the 20th Century)

Artifacts, Sculpture, Art, Jewelry, Etc.

If you are unable to attend this gala event, please submit your photographs with detailed descriptions to griffingallery18@yahoo.com

 

Griffin Gallery Ancient Art

Gallery Center

608 Banyan Trail  Boca Raton, FL 33431
561.994.0811    fax: 561.994.1855

 

 

 

GriffinConsignment

Various Consigned Pieces With Griffin Gallery Ancient Art

Griffin Gallery specializes in museum quality Ancient Art. Our holdings include over five hundred authentic artifacts that reflect a spectrum of the cultures of Antiquity in addition to Contemporary Fine Works of Art. Among our treasures are pieces from Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Far East, the Near East, the Holy Land, Pre-Columbian cultures, and pre historic Native America.

Griffin Gallery Ancient Art
Gallery Center, 608 Banyan Trail
Boca Raton, FL 33431
561.994.0811, fax: 561.994.1855
www.griffingallery.net
griffingallery18@yahoo.com

 

 

Sponsored by: Beiner,Inkeles & Horvitz, P.A. 2000 Glades Road, Ste. 110, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, (561) 750-1800

For coverage of your events, to place an advertisement, or speak to Rickie about appearing in The Rickie Report, contact:

Rickie Leiter, Publisher

The Rickie Report

P.O.Box 33423

Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33420

Rickie@therickiereport.com

561-537-0291

Griffin Gallery Explores Ancient Weaponry Dating from 2150 BCE

The Griffin Gallery offers rare opportunities to see ancient artifacts in a personal way.  This month, they explore the role of ancient weaponry in humankind’s evolution as a civilization.  Visitors will see three bronze swords that date to the time of  the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; the time of Moses; and then King David.  The Rickie Report urges parents to bring their children to this gallery to explore ancient history in a new and engaging way.

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Griffin Gallery Presents:

THE AGE OF ANCIENT WEAPONRY:

Featuring Three Bronze Swords Found in the Holy Land
Time of the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob (2150 – 1550 BCE)
Time of Moses (1550 – 1200 BCE)
Time of King David (930 – 556 BCE)

Public Reception:

Thursday, March 12, 2015  

  5:00 P.M. until 7:00 P.M.

The exhibition continues through April 09, 2015. Gallery hours are Tuesday through Saturday 10:30 A.M. until 5 P.M., Monday by appointment only and closed Sunday.

Griffin Gallery Ancient Art

Gallery Center, 608 Banyan Trail       Boca Raton, FL 33431

Bronze Swords

Bronze Swords

Ancient Weapons: The Game Changers

There is a wide range of ancient weapons from around the globe. They are often advancements on the earlier phase of weapons development, the primitive weapons man first created for hunting and warfare. However, some have no primitive predecessors, like the sword. Swords can only be crafted through a forging process that had not been invented in the earliest phase of weapon construction. Ancient weapons come in three forms, ranged weapons, melee (close combat) and siege weapons. The age of ancient weapons technically ended with the dawn of the medieval period, but these human powered weapons continued to dominate battlefields up until the ascendance of firearms. However, they can still be found on battlefields up to this very day.

Spears: Primitive Weapon of Choice

Spears are one of humankind’s earliest weapons and they reigned supreme for a hundred thousand years. The material culture of our Paleolithic (500,000 BC – 8,000 BC) ancestors covers 99% of the total time that man has been making tools and weapons.  The spear has been credited with creating 450,000 years of peace on earth, as even an outnumbered man holding a spear would be deadly to attack without ranged weapons.

 

 

The spear offers its user a level of protection due to its long reach and found a place in many ancient armies. The simple spear is cheap and effective, as ancient armies often combined it with a shield when equipping the ranks of their heavy infantry units. Spears units were found in many, many ancient armies from around the world.

 

 

Spear warfare hit its pinnacle when used by the Greeks and Macedonians. Spear armed Greek warriors, called Hoplites, mastered this style of warfare as their city states battled each other over hundreds of years. The terrain of Greece is broken up by rough terrain so Greece never developed the Chariot or Cavalry warfare, but instead focused on the use of infantry. During the Bronze Age, Greek warriors battled in the heroic style, each man fighting for his own glory independently. They considered the use of range weapons to be cowardly so their focus was primarily on heavy infantry. By the classical age of Greek civilization they had developed formation tactics. The Phalanx was developed, were rows of hoplites formed a shield wall, the left side of one hoplites shield protecting the man on his right. Heavily armored, spear wielding armies would form up and fight set piece battles. Casualties were generally light until one force’s formation was broken, then slaughter ensued as they fled.

 

 

 

Strategy in Battle

 

The next strategic development took advantage of this when an astute Theban general, Epaminondas (ca. 410 BC – 362 BC), realized that battles between phalanxes were essentially giant shoving matches. Whichever phalanx had the strength to put enough pressure on their opponent caused them to break formation, route and loose the battle. It was correctly reasoned that if he loaded up one side of his line and had his weaker side trailing behind them in an echelon formation that by the time the week side engaged the enemy the strong side would have already broke their formation, winning the battle.

 
The next major development would be made by their neighbors to the North. Phillip of Macedonia, who paid attention to Epaminondas’ innovations, doubled the length the spears of his army (to over 18 feet!) and reduced the size of their shields so his soldiers could hold the long spears with both hands. This allowed the spears of the first five ranks to protrude from the formation instead of just the couple ranks like in a Greek phalanx. Enemies faced an impregnable wall of spear tips. Phillips son, Alexander the Great, then used this formation to conquer the known world (335 BC – 326 BC).

 

 

 

Around the year 315 BC, the Romans adopted the system of the Samnites, called the maniple system, that allowed for more flexibility in the rugged hills of Samnium where the Romans were forced to fight. The maniple system has been called a phalanx with joints, each square maniple, about 120 men, could function as an independent unit. The maniples were arrayed in a checker board pattern; this allowed space for skirmishers to retreat through the gaps when the heavy infantry closed on their enemies. The front two rows of maniples would then form a single line and battle the enemies. When this line tired it could then retreat through the spaces of the maniples behind it without disrupting their formations, and a fresh line of soldiers would take up the fight. Maniples could also be detached to protect flanks or any other task. The Roman heavy infantry was organized into three lines, the first two lines used short, double edged stabbing swords and the last armed with spears. The youngest men formed the first line, the hastati , after they tired they would fall back through gaps in the next line, the principes. The more experienced principes would then continue the fight, if they were having trouble they could then retreat behind the Triarii. The triarii were the final line and most experienced soldiers.

 

 
In the Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) Rome proved that they were capable of competing with the armies of the Hellenistic kingdoms — the successor kingdoms of Alexander and the dominant Mediterranean powers of the time.  75 years later the Romans fought the Macedonians and their phalanx in the Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC). They employed a variety of tactics to break up the massive formations. They chose uneven ground to fight on, attempting to break the cohesion of the massive phalanx. Before the front lines met in battle the Romans let loose with their pila, harpoon-like throwing spears that caused gaps in the enemy formation that could be exploited. They used a wedge shaped formation to attempt to break through the wall of spear points. The well armed Romans with their large, curved shields were able to exploit the gaps in the wall of spears and get through to the Macedonians in order to break up their formations. Once inside, the spears, the longer swords and better armor of the Romans gave them a distinct advantage over the lightly armored Macedonians whose secondary weapon was a short sword was little more than a dagger.

 

 
The Macedonians’ defeat is often held to have demonstrated that their phalanx, formerly the most effective fighting unit in the ancient world, had been proven inferior to the Roman legion. Others have argued that the loss was actually due to a failure of command on the part of Perseus, the Macedonian king. They also dispute weather the Roman maniples ever succeeded in breaking the Macedonian phalanx by engaging it frontally. We will never get the opportunity to know how a Macedonian phalanx using combined arms tactics in the style of Philip or Alexander would have sized up against the Roman legions.

 

The Roman legions standardized the sword as its main weapon, but they also carried the pila that could be used as spear in certain situations. Pila could be employed in hand to hand combat or as protection from mounted troops.  The legions conquered the Mediterranean world with sword in hand, but spears remained a common weapon throughout the world. 

Adapting to Range Weapons and Calvalry

From around 117 AD to the Western Roman Empire’s collapse around 476 AD the Roman army slowly changed. The sprawling empire was difficult to defend so the Romans became more dependent on barbarian troops. Additionally, a greater emphasis was placed on speed. The Romans concentrated on ranged weapons and cavalry at the expense of the heavy infantry. The infantry became more lightly armored as well and they acquired a heavy thrusting-spear which became the main close order combat weapon. Roman infantry had come full circle. 

 

 

Dark Ages

 

In the years that followed, called the dark ages, spears continued to be used widely. Barbarian armies used shield wall tactics reminiscent of the Greeks as they jostled for their places in the new world order. Spears offered an excellent defense against ascending military power of cavalry, if braced against the ground a charging enemy would impale himself. The Huns had introduced the stirrups to the roman world; this allowed a spear armed man to deliver a blow with the full power of the horse, couching the weapon under their armpit instead of stabbing overhand as was done in antiquity. This was the beginning of the medieval knights, but even if a plate armored knight wanted to charge into a wall of spears, his horse might not share his sentiment. 
During the Viking age and medieval period spears developed into a variety of polearm weapons, such as the bill, the halberd and the lance. The long, two-handed Macedonian style spear also made a comeback during the medieval times. During renaissance and age of exploration Pikes had another heyday and were used extensively by close order infantry formations both for attacks on enemy foot soldiers and as a counter-measure against cavalry assaults. Pike and firearm formations worked together; the pike men defended the slow loading and vulnerable gunners from enemy infantry and the deadly cavalry while the gunners provided a powerful ranged weapon.  Although pikes and spears were still used, usually due to the lacking of quantities of more modern weapons, up through the 1800’s.

 

 

 

The spear had a very long history, from the dawn of man and even into the first several hundred years of the gun powder era. Today spears are manufactured and used for hunting by humans, chimpanzees and orangutans.

Griffin Gallery:

Griffin Gallery specializes in museum quality Ancient Art. Our holdings include over five hundred authentic artifacts that reflect a spectrum of the cultures of Antiquity in addition to Contemporary Fine Works of Art. Among our treasures are pieces from Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Far East, the Near East, the Holy Land, Pre-Columbian cultures, and pre historic Native America.

 

 561.994.0811, fax: 561.994.1855

www.griffingallery.net
griffingallery18@yahoo.com

Sponsored by: Beiner,Inkeles & Horvitz, P.A. 2000 Glades Road, Ste. 110, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, (561) 750-1800

Works Cited By Griffin Gallery from Ancient Military.com

For coverage of your events, to place an advertisement, or speak to Rickie about appearing in The Rickie Report, contact The Rickie Report at:

Rickie Leiter, Publisher

The Rickie Report

P.O.Box 33423

Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33420

Rickie@therickiereport.com

561-537-0291

Griffin Gallery Presents: Guardians of Society, Featuring a Senufo Wooden Bird Sculpture

The Griffin Gallery opens a fascinating exhibit to the public.  A wooden Senufo Bird Sculpture will offer visitors a look into a society of people from the Northern Ivory Coast/Mali.  Bird figures are among the many art forms associated with Poro, a society of initiated Senufo men. Poro functions as a system of governmental and economic control, preparing young men for their roles as adults and serving as a channel for the worship of ancestors and of Ancient Mother, one of the two principal Senufo deities. The Rickie Report suggests bringing the family to see the amazing objects d’art, relics and antiquities the Griffin Gallery has to offer. It is an opportunity to bring history alive.  In addition, there are contemporary works of art. We share the details here.

 

 

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GRIFFIN GALLERY

Presents

GUARDIANS OF SOCIETY:

FEATURING A SENUFO WOODEN BIRD SCULPTURE

Northern Ivory Coast / Mali
Early – Mid 20th Century
Ex: L. Greenberg collection, Florida

Opening Reception:

Thursday, February 12, 2015

5:00 P.M. until 7:00 P.M.

Exhibition continues through March 11, 2015

Gallery hours are Tuesday through Saturday 10:30 A.M. until 5 P.M.

Monday by appointment only and closed Sunday.

Bird figures are among the many art forms associated with Poro, a society of initiated Senufo men. Poro functions as a system of governmental and economic control, preparing young men for their roles as adults and serving as a channel for the worship of ancestors and of Ancient Mother, one of the two principal Senufo deities.

 

 

 

GriffinSenufo

SENUFO WOODEN BIRD SCULPTURE

 

 

 

 

Within the society there is a series of grades though which groups of initiates pass at six- or seven-year intervals. Poro activities center around initiations of new members, the elevation of members to higher grades, and funerals. In some Senufo villages, the bird sculptures are kept in the sacred grove of Poro, where they stand guard protecting the members.

 

 

During initiations and some funeral rituals, they are carried in processions and are sometimes worn on the head in dramatic displays of strength. Poro and its art forms continue to play roles in Senufo society, although the bird figures have become rare. Senufo bird figures refer to both the physical and intellectual aspects of life, which together assure the continuation of the community.
The long, phallic beak touching the swollen belly suggestive of pregnancy alludes to the dual forces of male and female procreation. The yellow-casqued hornbill, one of the species found in the Senufo area, is considered the master among birds and a symbol of intellectual power. Its yellow head is equated with the red caps worn by Poro elders, who, like the bird, embody wisdom and authority.
The birds’ rectangular, outstretched wings are painted or carved in relief with geometric designs or images of snakes, lizards, other animals, or human figures. These motifs serve as didactic tools, referring the initiate to the wealth of knowledge embodied by Poro.

 

 

 

Griffin Gallery specializes in museum quality Ancient Art. Our holdings include over five hundred authentic artifacts that reflect a spectrum of the cultures of Antiquity in addition to Contemporary Fine Works of Art. Among our treasures are pieces from Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Far East, the Near East, the Holy Land, Pre-Columbian cultures, and pre-historic Native America.

SAVE THE DATE

Boca Raton Fine Jewelry, Art & Antique Show
February 07 – 09, 2015
Boca Raton Marriott
5150 Town Center Circle
Boca Raton, FL
Booth 13

Griffin Gallery Ancient Art
Gallery Center, 608 Banyan Trail
Boca Raton, FL 33431
561.994.0811, fax: 561.994.1855
www.griffingallery.net
griffingallery18@yahoo.com

Sponsored by: Beiner,Inkeles & Horvitz, P.A. 2000 Glades Road, Ste. 110, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, (561) 750-1800

 

For coverage of your events, to place an advertisement, or speak to Rickie about appearing in The Rickie Report, contact The Rickie Report at:

Rickie Leiter, Publisher

The Rickie Report

P.O.Box 33423

Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33420

Rickie@therickiereport.com

561-537-0291

Griffin Gallery Begins 2015 with a Spectacular Exhibit, “Chamá Cylinder Vases of Maya Highlands”, Featuring a Rare Polychrome Chama Pottery Cylinder Vase

The Griffin Gallery begins 2015 with a spectacular exhibit, “Chamá Cylinder Vases of Maya Highlands”, Featuring a Rare Polychrome Chama Pottery Cylinder Vase!  The Rickie Report is pleased to share this information because it is an opportunity for the public to see rare antiquities and have a dialogue with informative personnel.  The Griffin Gallery Ancient Art invites you to our SECOND THURSDAY exhibition opening, January 08, 2015. This event is from 5:00 P.M. until 7:00 P.M. Admission is FREE and we are Open to the Public, so please join us and bring a friend or two. Save the Date of the SECOND THURSDAY exhibition opening each month on your calendar from October until April.

 

 

griffinlogo

 

Griffin Gallery Presents

 

 

Chamá Cylinder Vases of Maya Highlands
Featuring a Rare Polychrome Chama Pottery Cylinder Vase 

With

Elaborate Dancing Lords

Guatemala, ca. 600 – 800 CE
Ex: John Fulling collection, Florida

Public Reception:

Thursday, January 08, 2015

5:00 P.M. until 7:00 P.M.

The exhibition continues through February 11, 2015


Gallery hours are Tuesday through Saturday 10:30 A.M. until 5 P.M., Monday by appointment only and closed Sunday.

 

 

In the essay “A Reinterpretation of the Chamá Vase”, Elin C. Danien writes that painted ceramic cylinders made by the Maya during the Late Classic (A.D. 700-900) form a special category highly appreciated by archaeologists, art historians, artists and connoisseurs alike. Many of these polychrome masterpieces have been excavated intact from the tombs and palaces of the elite, and are recognized as among the finest expressions of Maya artistic genius. Indeed, their presence is often an indicator of Classic “Maya-ness” (Reents Budet 1994.) The function and significance have been topics of debate, and the meaning of the painted scenes has been the subject of widely divergent arguments.

 

 

 

griffinMaya Chama1

Rare Polychrome Chama Pottery Cylinder Vase

Chamá Polychromes are named for the type site in southern Guatemala, which lies in a fertile valley in the Alta Verapáz, Guatemala’s hilly middle country, situated between the great Classic Era cities of the Petén in the Lowlands, and the more sparsely populated highlands to the west and south. The region lies on one of the major Precolumbian trade routes, but is peripheral to the prominent lowland Maya cities, and its architectural remains are not spectacular. That, and the political unrest of the past twenty years have contributed to the long archaeological hiatus in the region. Thus pottery, always a significant element of the material record in any archaeological investigation of Maya civilization, is of paramount importance when attempting to understand cultural development and change in the geographically marginal Chamá region, where no archaeologists have worked for the past 80 years. Such vessels are almost all we have from which to infer a history of the region and to open avenues of inquiry into questions of trade, politics, craft specialization, and iconography.

 

 

 

Chamá-style cylindrical vases have distinctive black-and-white chevron motif bands painted around the rim and base, with a bright white, and strong red-and-black palette, applied to a distinctive yellow to yellow-orange background. The preferred decorative template is either a static scene or individual repeated on each half of the vessel surface, or a continuous scene wrapped around the cylinder, such as on the well-known Ratinlinxul Vase.

 
Where hieroglyphs are present, they are usually short phrases, personal names, or calendrical day names. Because highland ceramics used fewer and frequently more sketchily drawn glyphs than those used on the well- known lowland ceramics, modern epigraphers at first believed they were merely decorative motifs, or else imitative pseudo-glyphs placed there by illiterate artists. This is no longer a credible theory, although many of the inscriptions remain poorly understood.

 
One of the reasons for the interest in these ceramics is the unorthodox sudden appearance of this sophisticated style in the equivalent of the Maya boondocks. The Chamá style emerged suddenly, flowered briefly and, with equal rapidity, ceased abruptly, as the potters turned back to their local traditions. Although generally ascribed to the Late Classic, Reents-Budet suggests an even tighter temporal frame: “Based on the scant archaeological data available for Chamá-style vessels, they probably date from the late seventh or early eighth centuries A.D.” (Reents Budet 1994). She estimates that no more than two or three generations of potters, working in an extremely circumscribed geographical area of Guatemala’s Hilly Middle Country, far from the great Classic centers of the Maya lowlands, were responsible for all of this pottery.

 

Griffin Gallery specializes in museum quality Ancient Art. Our holdings include over five hundred authentic artifacts that reflect a spectrum of the cultures of Antiquity in addition to Contemporary Fine Works of Art. Among our treasures are pieces from Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Far East, the Near East, the Holy Land, Pre-Columbian cultures, and pre historic Native America.

SAVE THE DATES

 

The Original Miami Beach Antique Show
Miami Beach Convention Center
January 30, 2015 – February 03, 2015
Booth 3008

 

 

Boca Raton Fine Jewelry, Art & Antique Show
February 07 – 09, 2015
Boca Raton Marriott
5150 Town Center Circle
Boca Raton, FL
Booth 13

For more information:

Griffin Gallery Ancient Art
Gallery Center, 608 Banyan Trail
Boca Raton, FL 33431
561.994.0811, fax: 561.994.1855
www.griffingallery.net
griffingallery18@yahoo.com

 

Sponsored by: Beiner,Inkeles & Horvitz, P.A. 2000 Glades Road, Ste. 110, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, (561) 750-1800

Works Cited: FAMSI – The Kerr Articles – A Reinterpretation of the Chamá Vase

 

 

 

For coverage of your events, to place an advertisement, or speak to Rickie about appearing in The Rickie Report, contact The Rickie Report at:

Rickie Leiter, Publisher

The Rickie Report

P.O.Box 33423

Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33420

Rickie@therickiereport.com

561-537-0291